Monday, December 9, 2019

Conflict and Negotiation Management

Question: Discuss about the Conflict and Negotiation Management. Answer: Introduction Currently, most organizations experience a conflict that arises from different causes. However, the most common and amicable technique applied by managers to handle conflicts is the negotiation (Alper, et al. 2000, p. 625-642). In this report, I have given an in-depth discussion on the subject of conflict and negotiation. The discussion is built from the literature review, followed by the description of diagnostic tools that are contrasted by the theories and assertions from the literature review. Then finally, I have identified the areas that I need improvements based on the diagnostic tools as well as the literature review. Similarly, I developed a realistic plan of activities intended to up my knowledge and skills in conflicts regarding conflicts and negotiation for next 6months. Literature review Definition of terms The turbulent business environment has necessitated organizations not to give a chance to non-constructive activities from deviating them from the pursuance of business interests (Awan, et al. 2015, p. 115-126). Conflict is described as the disagreements between people or groups (Alper, et al. 2000, p. 625-642). Also, conflict can be a situation whereby a party perceives that its interests are opposed to the other within a group, different group, the same organization or different organization (Anderson Sleap, 2004). Simply, it is the state of the disagreement caused by the feelings that ones interests are suppressed by the other. However, conflicts may be functional or dysfunctional to the organization (Alper, et al. 2000, p. 635-642). The causes of conflicts have a correlation with the effects of the conflicts on the organization performance. Perhaps, some scholars associate unconstructive conflicts to fragile conflicts management approaches that fail to suppress growing unrest from the employees (Awan, et al. 2015, p. 115-126). Although there is some evidence that sometimes conflicts positively contributes to the performance of the organization, but the reality is that the positive performance can only be realized if the management applies professional and conceptual skills to handle conflict (Bacal, 2004, p. 21-22). To resolve these differences among the groups, negotiation is employed. Negotiation, therefore, refers to the dialogue between the affected parties to craft an outcome that suits every aggrieved party (David Ariel, 2008, p. 143-190). For the process to be successful, fairness should be applied to reach a solution that mutually benefits all parties. It thus calls for individuals to relax their strong stands over the matter (Folger, et al. 2005). Therefore, the negotiation process goes through; preparation, discussion, clarification of goals, negotiation, agreement and finally implementation of agreed resolutions. Theories and models of conflicts and negotiation For the conflicts to be durably solved, various models are applied. In this review, I found the following models essential for enhancing success during the negotiation process. Firstly, there is the application of a cooperative model. It involves the consideration of the benefits that can be derived from the cooperation (Mahony Klaas, 2008, p. 251-271). Most importantly, an insight into the metrics like the nature of the conflicts, and the aims each party wants to achieve. While resolving the conflicts, the adoption of cooperation strategy will enhance trust and further creates to a mutually beneficial decision (Suppiah Rose, 2006). However, the use of competitive strategy results to a win lose situation that I bet is not palatable for the loser. It delimits the degree of the compliance by the loser and can be considered destructive (Folger, et al. 2005). Secondly, Roger Fisher and William Ury have explained the use of Principled Negotiation in the negotiation. They advocates for the utilization of four principles to enhance an effective conflict resolution process. The negotiator has to first and foremost separate people from their problem followed by focusing on the interests of the groups (Whetten Cameron, 2012). Thirdly, the negotiator has to generate different options before settling on the agreement. Finally, the negotiator must stress the relevance of basing on the objective criteria while settling on the agreement (Suppiah Rose, 2006). Thirdly, John Burton has advocated the use of Human needs Model. In the model, he states that conflicts are inevitable in the society where an individual or a group is deprived of its fundamental needs. Fixing such a situation demands the identification of the essential needs and be accommodated in the solution (Tillett French, 2006). These models are however not conclusive techniques that all forms of conflicts should be followed while addressing them. There are other theories based on conflict transformation and conflict transmutation that equally gives their view regarding effective ways of handling conflicts in the organization and the group level. Notably, the current management practices require managers with tacit knowledge about the causes of conflicts and possible consequences of the disagreements to the organizational performance (Singleton, et al. 2011, p. 149-163). For instance, elements like differing values, opposing interests, personality conflicts, poor communication, personal problems, and others need to be identified, and staffs are coached how to avoid or manage such situations. Laying down conflict management procedures in the organization can at least caution the affected group to embrace a useful strategy in seeking a situation rather than paralyzing the entire activities in the organization to be felt (Bacal, 2004, p. 21-22). The applicable diagnostic tools Belbin Team roles inventory Belbin proposed five steps that can be utilized to deal with conflict when it erupts in a team (Fisher, et al. 2001). He did not assure that the techniques can consequently solve the conflict but can significantly assist to bring order. A succinct understanding of team role can assist reduce the protagonists that may seem endless in the organization. Team dynamism is a subject of interest for leaders since it helps them to clearly define members roles and employ all possible methods that can enhance achievement of the team objective (David Ariel, 2008, p. 143-190). Belbin emphasized the use of mediation to resolve conflicts. Some of the stages he suggested include identifying the conflicts, brainstorm, letting the party take responsibility, selection of best solution and signing off for monitoring. Indeed, this process is similar to the five stages discussed in the literature review. Johari Window The tool aids individuals to understand the relationship that should exist between themselves and others. The window has four panes where each part suggests various distinctive ways individuals should use while handling others or communicating with others. The arena area contains public behavior (Scott Gerardi, 2011, p. 70-80). Simply, they are things that an individual knows as well as the ones that the group knows. The blind arena contains the information and individual may not know about himself, but the group knows. The hidden arena contains confidential information an individual may know but not available in the group. Lastly, the unknown pane has things that are neither known to the group or an individual. Thomas Khilman Conflict Questionnaire (TKI) It gives adequate information on ways individuals should take in handling different situations in group dynamics. Thomas Khilman focuses on the main two ways of handling conflict, and that is cooperatives and assertiveness. In the measuring of individuals response to a conflict situation, five basic ways are proposed. They include competing, accommodating, compromising, collaborating and competing (Shaw, 2004). The blatant fact is that conflict is resolved through negotiation if the aggrieved parties are willing to relax the firm stands over their interests and listen to the other parties (David Ronald, 2006, p. 359-390). The strength is both the tools and theories applied in addressing conflicts situation involves the consideration of demands of all parties and leading them to select one option that mutually benefits others (Whetten Cameron, 2012). It is clear that as a manager, I can be better because of my ability to identify the cause, listening to the claim, involving the parties in selecting one course of action and further my knowledge in monitoring the compliance with the agreement (Jehn Mannix, 2001). On the contrary, these tools have partially given succinct techniques of handling persistent conflicts where no party is willing to entertain negotiation. While applying the tools, I may lack adequate information regarding handling conflicts in different groups and levels. However, I only have general knowledge in dealing with conflict. The areas I need to improve based on the literature review This topic is fundamental in assisting me to identify some weaknesses I possessed in handling conflicts. First, I have to improve my listening skills and accommodate the interests of each party before consciously agreeing on one solution. Also, I have realized that my use of collaboration in all situations does not entirely apply everywhere. Conflict is solved in whichever way provided a lasting solution is found. Personal development plan Name Date Personal analysis Strengths I have a firm mastery of the types of conflict and the possible causes. This understanding has significantly helped me handle conflicts among groups before negatively impacting the group morale. Secondly, I possess effective communication skills and talks with some vehement that makes most of the people to listen to me. The ability to effectively articulate ideas and exact tackling of issues reduces the chances of resistance in the conflicting parties. Besides, I have the ability to apply collaboration, accommodative and compromising. Also, I have the potential to discern group dynamism and understand impacts of groups worrying interests. Weakness As usual, nobody is perfect. I am easily swayed by the loud party. Also, I havent been applying competing and conflicting approaches to solving conflicts. Sometimes, I am unconscious about the need of establishing the culture that advocates peaceful coexistence among the people as well as groups. Goals setting Attend conflict and negotiation classes to enhance my negotiating strength Reading journals about organization conflicts and negotiation to up my understanding of group dynamic. Learn appropriate measures to create a positive climate during conflicts negotiation. Staying strong to avoid being swayed by one side Personal and interpersonal skills I am assertive in addressing issues as well as a good listener of the opinions and ideas from the other parties. Personal objectives To build strong groups through creating an environment where the opinion of every one matters. Establishing effective communication channels in the organization to prevent possibility of conflicts. Unifying people and all departments to work towards common goals. Creating distinctive culture that doesnt perceive conflict as the option to handle compromising situations. Remaining positive and optimistic in every situation. Conclusion To sum up, the eruption of conflict in the organization does not always have adverse effects on the organization. However, the majority of the conflicts experienced in the current turbulent business environment are based on controversial parties that aim to satisfy personal interests. Managers, therefore, need to familiarize will possible causes and employ appropriate measures discussed in the report to solve the conflict. Most importantly, negotiation is the best general approach that constitutes other forms that perfectly fosters order and conversion to a universal agreement among the conflicting parties. It can be through an intense focus on the entire topic of conflict and negotiation that managers can stay updated about various ways of managing people in the organization. References Alper, S., Tjosvold, D., Law, K. (2000). Conflict management, efficacy and performance in an organizational teams: Personnel Psychology, 53, 625-642. Anderson, N., Sleap, S. (2004). An evaluation of gender differences on the Belbin Team Role Self-Perception Inventor: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. 77, 429-437. Awan, A.G., Qurratul, A., and Shaukat, M. (2015) Role of Family conflict on organizational commitment and effectiveness: Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, Vol.3 No.1 pp 115-126. Bacal, R. (2004). Organizational conflict: The good, the bad and the ugly. The Journal of Quality and Participation, 27(2), 21-22. David, B. Ariel C., (2008) Toward a Strategic Theory of Workplace Conflict Management, Ohio St. J. Disp. Resolution, 24(1), 143-190. David, B Ronald L. S. (2006) Managing Organizational Conflicts, in the Sage Handbook of Conflict Communication: Integrating Theory. Research, and Practice: Sage Publications, 359-390. Fisher, S. G., Hunter, T. A., Macrosson, W. D. K. (2001). A validation study of Belbin's team roles: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. 10(2), 121-144. Folger, J., Poole, S. M. Stutman, R. (2005). Working through conflict: Boston, MA: Pearson. Jehn, K.A. Mannix, E. (2001). The Dynamic Nature of Conflict: A Longitudinal Study of Intra-group Conflict and Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 238-251. Mahony, D. M. Klaas, B. S. (2008). Comparative Dispute Resolution in the Workplace, Journal of Labor Resources, (29), 251271. Shaw, C. (2004). Cooperation, conflict, and consensus in the organization of American States. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Singleton, R., Toombs, L. A., Taneja, S., Larkin, C., Pryor, M. G. (2011). Workplace Conflict: A strategic leadership imperative, International Journal of Business and Public Administration, 8(1); 149-163. Scott, C., Gerardi, D. (2011). A strategic approach for managing conflict in hospitals: Responding to The Joint Commission leadership standard, Part 2. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 37(2), 70-80. Suppiah, W. Rose, R. (2006). A competence-based view to conflict management: American Journal of Applied Sciences 3(7), 1905-1909. Tillett, G. French, B. (2006). Resolving Conflict: Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press. Whetten, D. A. Cameron, K. (2012). Managing Power and Conflict in the workplace: Introduction to International Organizational Behavior Online from: https://www.introtoob.com/textbook/intotoob/chapter7 Conflict and Negotiation Management Question: Write an essay on "Conflict and Negotiation Management". Answer: Introduction The topic chosen to prepare this paper is conflict management. The role of a manager is to handle and manage all kinds of conflicts that arrive at the workplace. There are three main measures that can be managed effectively and professionally for creating a positive effect. Emotions play a critical role in managing conflict as it threatens or enhances relationship among colleagues. This paper focuses on different kind of methods and approaches to deal with conflicts. For managing conflicts, the behaviour of the team members or colleagues in the organization must be enhanced. Methods such as feedback can be followed so that the people can assess themselves and their behaviours (Helms and Oliver 2015). As a manager, I need to ensure that the emotional charges do not outweigh conflict and become dysfunctional. For resolving a conflict, one needs to identify it from an independent perspective. This paper states different ways to prevent and manage conflicts. As an organization has different people with some shared purpose or objective, there are different perspectives that may possibly lead to conflicts. A high performance team can be formed by respecting and accepting each others differences (Driskill and Brenton 2011). The differences can be explained in terms of values and norms on the basis of which effective conflict management can be conducted. Conflict management is one of the strongest characteristics for a manager. Conflicts can be based on different opinions and different signs of discord and must be averted for further conflict escalation (Way, Jimmieson and Bordia 2016). Part 1 Good relationship cannot be established without good internal communication. Since different people have different opinions towards the same subject. In the global world, business communication is necessary to conduct business. The two types of communication are organizational and external communication. It is risky for an organization to have too many conflicts. Human relations cannot be well established without communication. Effective and active communication is not only required for maintaining good relations, but also for achieving efficient business performance. However, conflicts can be useful in making correct decisions and helps in overcoming obstacles in the business (Wilensky 2015). Conflict in an Organization Conflict can be defined is a process of social situation and interaction where the activities of individuals are in a disagreement. A stage of organizational conflict occurs when the colleagues are incompatible with the others in their network. There is a state of dissonance, disagreement and incompatibility among the colleagues at the organization (Lipsky 2015). There are various approaches or types of organizational conflict: Vertical conflicts occur when the supervisor is always instructing its employees to complete his job. This conflict occurs when the organizational structure possesses a high degree of formality (Gelfand et al. 2012). Horizontal conflicts occur when the employees belong to the same hierarchical level. The conflicts occur when there is a difference in opinion, ideas or interests (de Wit, Greer and Jehn 2012). Line staff conflicts occur between the line employees belonging to the same department of an organization (Vaara et al. 2012). Role conflicts occur from fallacious understanding for employees when the role is unclear at a specific amount of time (Kerzner 2013). The two types and causes of conflicts are: personal and organizational conflicts. The personal conflicts can be caused due to the following reasons; Inappropriate communication- The errors arise from the inability or miscommunication from listening. The errors may be caused if information is lost in the process while conducting upward and downward communication. It may also be caused due to inadequate understanding or difference in the emotional status in the moment of communication (Jung, Park and Lee 2012). Personal characteristics- This is another reason that causes conflicts in case of personal disliking. Different people have different personalities and when they work together, it may lead to conflict (Gelfand et al. 2012). Distrust- Trust is the foundation of good relations. It adds value and confidence among the members. The five important dimensions are competence, integrity, loyalty and openness and consistency. When there is suspiciousness and the foundation dwindles, it may lead to conflict (Gelfand et al. 2012). Organizational causes of conflict can be caused using organizational design, characteristics and resources such as budgeting, decision-making and compensations. A few causes of organizational conflicts are: Differentiation of organizational units- The different functional units in the organization such as manufacturing, sales, purchasing and operations are required daily in the organization. There is a difference in working manners and culture due to presence of many people in the different functional areas (Bresman and Zellmer-Bruhn 2013). Dependence in work activities- In an organization, the colleagues depend on each other for certain work. If one colleague has not finished his job, the other person who is depending on his work may create conflict. Sharing limited resources- Resources may be for information technology, financial, human resources and redistribution of employees may be insufficient for conducting activities effectively. This reason may lead to conflict. Compensation system- This system has a direct influence of the employees behaviour as the different variables such as salaries, rewards and incentives may not be acceptable to employees. The employees may be dissatisfied which would lead to conflict (Hopeck et al. 2014). Conflict Process According to Louis R. Pondys approach, there are five stages of conflict process: Latent conflict stage- This is the first stage in which the conflict is hidden and may be caused due to difference in goals, insufficient resources and orientation towards the organization. Conflict perception stage- This is the second stage in which the parties become aware of the latent conflict. Various perceptions are formed in this stage as it goes unrecognized in the latent stage (Moore 2014). Tangible conflict- The conflicts is personalized in this stage as it takes the tangible form such as stress, tensions, anxiety and other uncomfortable feelings (Moore 2014). Manifested conflict stage- In this stage, the conflict behaviour such as apathy to open aggression would be opposite to organizational rules (Moore 2014). Consequence stage- In the final stage, the conflict is e Figure 1: Conflict Process according to Pondys model Source: Created by Author Another model that is quoted in the conflict management theory are the stages same as that of Pondys model. Managing Conflict Figure 2: Conflict Management Process Source: Created by Author The conflict management process goes through the following stages: Diagnosis- It is the most critical element of the conflict management process that involves problem recognition. It is possible to recognize and analyze an effective intervention. It is necessary to find out conflicts in the organization as it would explore strategies for solving conflicts (Buckley and Caple 2014). Intervention- After diagnosis, it is important to carry intervention of the conflicts following process or structural approach. In the process approach, the intensity of conflicts is recognized for matching different styles of handling conflicts. In the structural approach, organizational effectiveness may be improved for altering perceptions of the conflict (Buckley and Caple 2014). Conflict- The two issues or dimensions in conflicts are related to emotional and interpersonal issues. These two types are the conflicts that occur in the workplace, as discussed in the previous section (Buckley and Caple 2014). Learning and effectiveness- The major objectives of managing conflict are to enhance organizational learning involving knowledge acquisition, interpretation and distribution. There are processes and structures for collective learning (Buckley and Caple 2014). According to Thomas-Kilman instrument (TKI), there are five approaches of managing conflict that can be described along two dimensions: assertiveness and cooperativeness. The TKI is ideal for conflict management, team building, leadership development, performance improvement, stress reduction and retention (Cpp.com 2016). Figure 3: Thomas-Kilman Instrument for Conflict Management Source: (Cpp.com 2016) The five approaches are described as follows: Accommodating- The accommodating strategy occurs when one wants to create goodwill or show that they are reasonable. The skills of an accommodator are obedience and selflessness. It may lead to be restricted influence, overlooked ideas and loss of contribution if is overused. In case it is underused, it may lead to low morale and lack of rapport among individuals (Brown 2012). Avoiding- The strategy helps in putting conflict off indefinitely. For managing conflict, the person may have low concern for self and others. It is a situation in which the issues are left unresolved and others are allowed to take ownership (McDermott 2012). Competition- It is easy to recognize a competitor as they are only concerned about winning. They are low on the cooperative scale and high on assertiveness. If the competition is underused, it may lead to indecision or delayed action. If the competition is overused, it may lack feedback and reduce learning (McDermott 2012). Compromise- A compromiser seeks way to meet each partys needs. A compromiser demonstrates skills of moderation and negotiation. An overuse of compromise means a loss of the big picture perspective and lack of trust. If it is underused there may be frequent power struggles and unnecessary confrontations (Brown 2012). Collaboration- A collaborator demonstrates empathy, understanding and ability to listen. In collaboration, the person is high on cooperativeness and assertiveness. The object is to find a creative solution acceptable to everyone (Pietersen, 2014). The Dynamic Conflict Model The dynamic conflict model focuses on the ways in which cues affect conflict resolution in positive or negative ways. The model separates affective and cognitive conflicts. Cognitive conflicts are task-focused conflicts that would de-escalate conflicts. Contrarily, affective conflicts are more focused on emotional issues that would escalate conflicts (Kaufman and Kaufman 2015). Figure 4: Dynamic-Conflict Model Source: (Kaufman and Kaufman 2015) Conflict management helps in allowing groups to talk about disagreements and issues, allowing the people to transfer or share information. Several variables such as openness help in opening conversations and confront arguments. The conflict management positively affects team building. There is a possibility of development and innovation of ideas with conflict resolution. It would enhance team performance and detract it. Part 2 Thomas- Kilman Model Figure 5: Conflict Management Model Conflict is a natural part since no two individuals have the same desires or expectations. The Thomas-Kilmann instrument has been a leader for managing conflict all these years. The instrument does not require any special qualification for administration. There is no need to bring any professional for assistance (Trippe and Baumoel 2015). Every conflict situation has people who have incompatible opinions and can be described along two basic dimensions- assertiveness and cooperativeness. Assertiveness is a behaviour in which the individual attempts to satisfy his own concerns. Cooperativeness is a behaviour in which the individual tries to satisfy others concerns (Trippe and Baumoel 2015). The five approaches are: Accommodating- The approach can be used in circumstances where there is a need for better solution. The circumstances where the employees must be developed through experimenting and learning can also be used in accommodating (Trippe and Baumoel 2015). Competing- The approach can be followed in case of emergency where quick decision is vital. The approach shall also be beneficial when there is a need to protect oneself from others who take advantage of incompetent behaviour (Trippe and Baumoel 2015). Compromising- This approach is used when the two parties have equal power and equally committed goals. The approach can be used to here is a need to arrive to a solution under stress and time pressure (Trippe and Baumoel 2015). Avoiding- This approach shall be used when an issue is more important than the other. The potential costs are high in comparison with the benefits of the conflict resolution (Trippe and Baumoel 2015). Collaborating- This approach shall be used when I need to find an integrative solution and the concerns of both parties are important (Trippe and Baumoel 2015). The cues that others might look for in using the model chosen by me would have different perspectives. Conflict Healthy Response Unhealthy Response Interpersonal Conflict A few healthy responses are control over emotions, respectful of difference of understanding and opinions, and development of growth between the relationships (Yarnell and Neff 2013). A few responses may result in anger, resentful actions and other negative emotions that are a failure from perspectives or both parties (Yarnell and Neff 2013). Intrapersonal Conflict A few responses may be moving from past decisions, learning from mistakes and believe in himself. One may seek advice from family, friends and professional advice for coping strategies (de Wit, Greer and Jehn 2012). A few unhealthy responses can be indecisiveness, anxiety, confusion, and stress. The person may be angry within themselves (de Wit, Greer and Jehn 2012). Conclusion For managing conflicts, the behaviour of the team members or colleagues in the organization must be enhanced. A high performance team can be formed by respecting and accepting each others differences. The two types of communication are organizational and external communication. Effective and active communication is not only required for maintaining god relations, but also for achieving efficient business performance. A stage of organizational conflict occurs when the colleagues are incompatible with the others in their network. The errors may be caused if information is lost in the process while conducting upward and downward communication. Different people have different personalities and when they work together, it may lead to conflict. Organizational causes of conflict can be caused using organizational design, characteristics and resources such as budgeting, decision-making and compensations. In an organization, the colleagues depend on each other for certain work. Various perceptions are formed in this stage as it goes unrecognized in the latent stage. Conflict management process involves solving conflicts, instead of reducing, eliminating and limiting the duration. In the structural approach, organizational effectiveness may be improved for altering perceptions of the conflict. Cognitive conflicts are task-focused conflicts that would de-escalate conflicts. Contrarily, affective conflicts are more focused on emotional issues that would escalate conflicts. The conflict management positively affects team building. References Bresman, H. and Zellmer-Bruhn, M., 2013. The Structural Context of Team Learning: Effects of Organizational and Team Structure on Internal and External Learning.Organization Science, 24(4), pp.1120-1139. Brown, J., 2012. Empowering Students to Create and Claim Value through the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument.Negotiation Journal, 28(1), pp.79-91. Buckley, R. and Caple, J., 2014.The theory practice of training. London: Kogan Page. Cpp.com, 2016.Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI). [online] Cpp.com. de Wit, F., Greer, L. and Jehn, K., 2012. The paradox of intragroup conflict: A meta-analysis.Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(2), pp.360-390. DeChurch, L., Mesmer-Magnus, J. and Doty, D., 2013. Moving beyond relationship and task conflict: Toward a process-state perspective.Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(4), pp.559-578. Driskill, G. and Brenton, A., 2011.Organizational culture in action. Los Angeles: SAGE. Gelfand, M., Leslie, L., Keller, K. and de Dreu, C., 2012. Conflict cultures in organizations: How leaders shape conflict cultures and their organizational-level consequences.Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(6), pp.1131-1147. Helms, W. and Oliver, C., 2015. Radical settlements to conflict: Conflict management and its implications for institutional change.Journal of Management Organization, 21(04), pp.471-494. Hopeck, P., Desrayaud, N., Harrison, T. and Hatten, K., 2014. Deciding to Use Organizational Grievance Processes: Does Conflict Style Matter?.Management Communication Quarterly, 28(4), pp.561-584. Jung, K., Park, D. and Lee, S., 2012. A Study of Relationships between Organizational Communication Satisfaction and Organizational Conflict among Nurses.The Korean Journal of Health Service Management, 6(4), pp.165-176. Kaufman, S. and Kaufman, M., 2015. Two-Group Dynamic Conflict Scenarios: Toy Model with a Severity Index.Negotiation Confl Manage Res, 8(1), pp.41-55. Kerzner, H., 2013.Project management. New York: John Wiley. Lipsky, D., 2015. The Future of Conflict Management Systems.Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 33(S1), pp.S27-S34. McDermott, E., 2012. Discovering the Importance of Mediator Style-An Interdisciplinary Challenge.Negotiation Confl Manage Res, 5(4), pp.340-353. Moore, C., 2014.The mediation process. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Pietersen, C., 2014. Interpersonal Conflict Management Styles and Emotion Self-Management Competencies of Public Accountants.MJSS. Siira, K., 2012. Conceptualizing Managerial Influence in Organizational Conflict-A Qualitative Examination.Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 5(2), pp.182-209. Trippe, B. and Baumoel, D., 2015. Beyond the Thomas-Kilmann Model: Into Extreme Conflict.Negotiation Journal, 31(2), pp.89-103. Vaara, E., Sarala, R., Stahl, G. and Bjrkman, I., 2012. The Impact of Organizational and National Cultural Differences on Social Conflict and Knowledge Transfer in International Acquisitions.Journal of Management Studies, 49(1), pp.1-27. Way, K., Jimmieson, N. and Bordia, P., 2016. Shared perceptions of supervisor conflict management style.Int Jnl of Conflict Management, 27(1), pp.25-49. Wilensky, H., 2015.Organizational intelligence. New York: Basic Books. Yarnell, L. and Neff, K., 2013. Self-compassion, Interpersonal Conflict Resolutions, and Well-being.Self and Identity, 12(2), pp.146-159.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Penis And Its Transparency Essays - Counterculture Of The 1960s

Penis And It's Transparency This first chapter, a preface, is insistent on the fact that the book is based on real events. Vonnegut, like our narrator, is a veteran of World War II, a former prisoner of war, and a witness to a great massacre, and that fact lends a certain authority to what follows. Vonnegut shares with us his enduring inability to render in writing the horror of Dresden. There is nothing intelligent to say about a massacre, yet he feels the need to say something. The book unabashedly charts the author's struggle to find a way to write about what he saw in a way that neither belittles nor glorifies it. This struggle we keep in the back of our minds as we proceed to read of Billy Pilgrim's life. The author also irrevocably creates himself as a character in the narrative. It is Kurt Vonnegut, the writer, the former POW, who speaks of the many times he has tried and failed to write this book. It is Kurt Vonnegut, too, who utters the first "So it goes" after relating that the mother of his taxi driver during his visit to Dresden in 1967 was incinerated in the Dresden attack. "So it goes" is repeated after every report of every death. It becomes a mantra of resignation, of acceptance, of a supremely Tralfamadorian philosophy (something we will be introduced to later). But because the phrase is first uttered by Vonnegut writing as Vonnegut, each "So it goes" seems to come directly from the author and from the world outside the fiction of the text. Chapter One also hints that time will be an important part of the fiction to follow. The author was going around and around in circles trying to create a linear narrative. He felt like he was stuck inside a children's song that continued indefinitely, its last line maddeningly serving as also as its first. Only when he begins to think about static time, about returning endlessly to the events of one's life, about moments existing for eternity in no particular order, is he able to break through twenty years of frustration and write Slaughterhouse Five.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

How does Tennyson create the mood in Marianna Essay Example

How does Tennyson create the mood in Marianna Essay Example How does Tennyson create the mood in Marianna Paper How does Tennyson create the mood in Marianna Paper The mood in Tennyson’s poem is reflective of the state of mind of Mariana. Mariana, taken from Shakespeare’s Measure for Measure, is despondently isolated as she waits and waits for her lover, Angelo, to arrive. But he never does, hence the abandoned and derelict tone. In Marianna, Tennyson represents Mariana’s state of mind through using objective correlatives – the surrounding objects around Marianna symbolise Mariana’s internal state – and in particular, by using pathetic fallacy, these surrounding inanimate objects are given human feelings, signifying Mariana’s feelings. In the first stanza, the â€Å"broken sheds look’d sad and strange. † The fact that even these inactive objects are given negative feelings creates a negative mood. A depressing mood is also created in the first stanza as the details are exaggerated. The â€Å"blackest moss† creates a deathly and depressing mood, and the superlative exaggerates this. But also the internal rhyme between â€Å"thickly crusted,† (which describes how the flowerpots were covered with moss) and the â€Å"rusted† nails draws attention to the derelict and desolate landscape. The fact that moss and the rust only emerge after a long period of neglect highlights the severity of the neglect that Mariana has gone through, making the mood even more sorrowful. A sense of tiredness from waiting for her lover is emphasised through the form of the poem. The repetition of a quatrain at the end of each stanza, with only slight variation, where Mariana continually called out and expressed her grief, emphasises the length of time Mariana is secluded in the grange, and indeed the length of time that she has been waiting for Angelo to return. Thus, a sorrowful mood is created. 9 She only said, ‘My life us dreary, He cometh not,’ she said; She said, ‘I am aweary, aweary, 11 I would that I were dead! ’ In the refrain, the elongated words, â€Å"dreary† and â€Å"aweary† symbolise Mariana’s longing and desperation for her lover to arrive. They also slow down the line, as extra weak syllables are added onto the end of the iambs, namely the â€Å"-y† of each word. But also, the lack of hard consonants makes Mariana sound tired as she says these words. Also, the feminine rhyme in the refrain, where weary and dreary rhyme, but the second syllable is a weak vowel, reiterates the tired tone with which Marianna speaks. The stationary and solitary mood is created in Marianna even in the first line of the poem. Mariana is described as â€Å"in the moated grange. † Just as this epigraph lacks any kind of movement, as it lacks even a verb, the rest of the poem lacks any narrative movement as well. Therefore the rest of the poem merely elongates this image of a melancholic loneliness. The helplessness of Mariana’s situation in the poem is signalled in the third stanza. The idea of the â€Å"moated† grange, which is repeated from the epigraph, reinforces the sense of entrapment – Mariana is surrounded by water, and alone. The fact that there is â€Å"a sluice with blacken’d waters† proves this stagnation of the water, and how everything is in a state of slowing, as Marianna is. The caesura before â€Å"without hope of change† emphasises this further, as not only is she physically trapped as she is surrounded, but also that she is trapped in the repetitive nature which her life seems to be leading, and at last, she has given up hope that something will change from this norm. The lack of change in tone with the change in the time of the day emphasises Mariana’s stagnating life. In terms of the plot, nothing actually changes – Marianna is still in the same place at the end as she was at the beginning. In contrast, the changing of time from â€Å"morn to eventide† shows how life continues around her. Marianna is herself not quite living: she is in a dreamlike state, as she is so tired, where â€Å"in sleep she seem’d to walk forlorn. † The word forlorn is very emotive and gives the stanza a melancholy tone, which is emphasised by the long vowel sounds in ‘gray-eyed morn’. The adjective ‘morn’ is also homophonous with ‘mourn’, furthering the idea of Mariana’s severe depression, as if mourning for her life. Tennyson also begins to suggest the reason for her depression in the latter half of the poem, by introducing the symbol of the ‘poplar’ tree. He writes that ‘the shadow of the poplar fell/Upon her bed’, which perhaps symbolises her sexual desire for Angelo, and frustration at his absence, as she waits for him to ‘come’. The enjambment between ‘fell’ and ‘upon’ emphasises Mariana’s desperation in waiting for Angelo to arrive. It is also quite an ominous image, as shadows have connotations with death and darkness, which emphasises the hopelessness of her situation in her reiterated sigh ‘He cometh not’. In the poem, there is a overcast theme of death. â€Å"Dead† is repeated in the last line of every stanza, which emphasises the travesty that Mariana is going through. In the last stanza Tennyson writes ‘†¦; but most she loathed the hour When the thick-moted sunbeam lay Athwart the chambers’. The phrase is emphasised by the caesura directly before it, and the comparatively long time without a break for punctuation. This image of dust in the sunlight, (from thick moted) has connotations of decay and death. In particular, the words ‘thick’ and ‘lay’ make it seem very oppressive and heavy, which emphasises the slowing down of Marianna’s life. This idea is furthered as the image is one of the day drawing to a close; ‘And the day Was sloping toward his western bower’. This suggests that the sun is moving away from Mariana and setting, and moving towards Angelo. In particular, light has connotations of live and vitality – and so the lack of light creates a drained mood – reflective of Mariana’s mood. In the last stanza the refrain is different to the rest of the poem, which changes the tone entirely. Mariana appears to accept her fate, as she says ‘He will not come’, rather than ‘He cometh not’ which means her only sense of purpose, to wait for him, has been destroyed. Rather than ‘I were that I were dead! ’, which is repeated in the rest of the poem, the last line is ‘Oh God, that I were dead! ’ This line has the added impact of the intensifier ‘Oh God’, which creates a mood of desperation far more poignant than in the rest of the poem. It is as though, as the poem draws to a close, Mariana’s life does too.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Practice in Changing Verbs From Passive to Active Voice

Practice in Changing Verbs From Passive to Active Voice In this exercise, you will practice changing verbs from the passive voice to the active voice by turning the subject of a passive verb into the direct object of an active verb. Instructions Revise each of the following sentences by changing the verb from the passive voice to the active voice. Here is an example: Original sentence:The city was nearly destroyed by the hurricane.Revised sentence:The hurricane nearly destroyed the city. When youre done, compare your revised sentences with those below. The school was struck by lightning.​This morning the burglar was arrested by the police.​One type of air pollution is caused by hydrocarbons.​An elaborate supper for the miners was prepared by Mr. Patel and his children.​The cookies were stolen by the Mad Hatter.​New York Citys Central Park was designed in 1857 by F.L. Olmsted and Calbert Vaux.​It was decided by the court that the contract was invalid.​The first commercially successful portable vacuum cleaner was invented by a janitor who was allergic to dust.​After Leonardo da Vincis death, the Mona Lisa was purchased by King Francis I of France.​The allegorical novel Animal Farm was written by British author George Orwell during World War II. Below are revised versions of the sentences in the exercise. Lightning struck the school.​This morning the police arrested the burglar.​Hydrocarbons cause one type of air pollution.​Mr. Patel and his children prepared an elaborate supper for the miners.​The Mad Hatter stole the cookies.​F.L. Olmsted and Calbert Vaux designed New York Citys Central Park in 1857.​The court decided that the contract was invalid.​A janitor who was allergic to dust invented the first commercially successful portable vacuum cleaner.​King Francis I of France purchased the  Mona Lisa  after Leonardo da Vincis death.​British author George Orwell wrote the allegorical novel  Animal Farm  during World War II.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Argument Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Argument - Essay Example Some four years ago a relative of my aunt’s was diagnosed with breast cancer. She was only fifteen years old and there was no family history of cancer yet when asked for the cause of the disease the doctors said that high exposure to DDT was the cause of cancer. In Africa (where they lived) DDT was frequently used to counter Malaria and the same chemical is an integral component of many of the pesticides used on agricultural fields, which later forms a part of our food chain either through the vegetables we eat or through the red or white meat we consume. The concentration of DDT by the time it reaches the bloodstream of human beings reaches very high levels compared to its concentration in plants or animals. Consequently, the adverse effects of DDT in human beings can cause diseases such as cancer. As is the case of genetically modified food, people do not raise the issue of the usage of concentrated levels of pesticides because they themselves are not aware of the potential dangers associated with the use and exposure to such chemicals. In a documentary aired on BBC, which I saw a few years back a farmer was being interviewed and asked as to why he wore no protective mask while spraying the fields with pesticide and his reply was that he felt no need to do so. Just as Carson pointed out, this shows us how little awareness exists amongst the primary stakeholders who are most vulnerable to the detrimental effects of these chemicals. Moreover, when asked as to why he used pesticides he clarified that they were cheap and thus killed the pests. My friend who is studying Agricultural Engineering in India also hardly knows the potential threats which pesticides can cause to the environment. The justification provided by Carson for the excessive need to use of pesticides as being nothing but a farce is something I only partially agree with because the scenario of surplus food production is prevalent in

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Komodo dragons and their behaviour Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Komodo dragons and their behaviour - Essay Example Reptiles, belong to the class referred to as Reptilia, can be described as the evolutionary grade of those animals that comprise today’s snakes, tuatara, lizards, and crocodilians among others. It examines the life of their extinct relatives as well as the long-gone ancestors of the present-day mammals. Because of their diversity and evolutionary history, it is important to realize that the level of validity in this class has not been supported universally in various scientific circles. However, the practice has remained to be used by many laymen and biologists especially those in the media. Herpetology is the kind of study that specializes in reptiles, examining their history and evolutionary trends. It also examines the life of amphibians with the same motive as that highlighted above, for reptiles (Ariefiandy et al.67). Some of the earliest known reptiles originate from around 315M years. This happened, especially in the Carboniferous times. Some of the early examples of amphibians include Westlothiana and Hylonomus, Casineria, which according to history may be some of the only known land-dwelling amphibians (Ariefiandy et al. 70). Besides existing amphibians, many diverse groups have now become extinct due to many reasons including mass extinctions. However, the point of interest is to understand how the present day reptiles behave in their natural habitats, something that can help in the development of effective management and conservation approaches and strategies.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Murder of Emmett Till Essay Example for Free

Murder of Emmett Till Essay Emmett Till was a fourteen year old boy who lived in Chicago. He was very outgoing and friendly with everyone he met. After his uncle, Moses (Moh-ss) Wright, came up to visit, he took Emmett and his cousin down to Money, Mississippi. Before he left, his mother informed him that life is very, very different for blacks in the South and the way he acted at home could not be the same as how he acted down there. He didn’t believe her warnings. As Emmett and his mother got to the train station Emmett ran for the train in haste as to not miss his ride. Mamie Till, his mother, yelled to him â€Å"Emmett, aren’t you gonna say good bye? What if I never see you again?† Emmett said, â€Å"Awhh mama.† Then he gave her a kiss on the cheek and handed her his watch so that she had part of him while he was away. She asked about his father’s ring and he said he was, â€Å"going to show it off to the boys† and was on his way without regard to his mother’s warnings. Money, Mississippi was just a stretch of road with a post office on one end and Bryant’s Grocery and Meat Market at the other. Bryant’s sold cool drinks to passing field workers and candy to the neighborhood children. So African Americans were often regulars. As Mamie had said, the south was like a whole other world compared to Chicago. In the south, when a white woman would walk down the sidewalk and a black man was walking towards her, he would have to get off the sidewalk and look at the ground because a black male can never look a white woman in the eyes. Blacks weren’t even allowed to enter through the front doors of white businesses. Moses Wright worked on a field picking cotton. He lived in a small shack on the plantation that he worked for. There were only three small rooms in the shack so everyone squeezed in to the available beds. Emmett had to sleep with his cousin in one room; Moses was in another and in the other room, Wheeler Parker, Emmett’s close cousin and the others. While there Emmet and his cousins would help Moses in the field. On August 24, the boys drove into town from the field and went in to Bryant’s Grocery to get candy and drinks. Emmett went in and purchased two cents worth of bubble gum and on the way out turned back to Carolyn Bryant, the wife of the owner of Bryant’s Grocery, and whistled to her. She was furious and ran out to chase the boys, so they got in the car and drove off to their uncle’s house. While driving home Emmett begged his cousins not to tell Moses of the events that occurred. After three days, the boys forgot about the whole scenario. On the fourth night, at about 2:30 am while everyone lay asleep in bed, Roy Bryant, Carolyn’s husband, and his brother J.W. Milam broke into the house. They went into the first room to find Moses sleeping and woke him, shinning a flashlight in his eye and holding a rifle to his head and asked where Emmett was. Moses pleads for them to leave the boy alone but they did not listen and went into Emmett’s room and kidnapped him. Days went by with no word, so as does most blacks when someone goes missing, they started to check around the Tallahassee River, to try to find his body. Days later, a young man fishing in the Tallahatchie reported Emmett’s body floating in the nearby weeds. When Moses went to identify the body, the only way he could verify that it was Emmett, was by his father’s ring that was on his finger. Both men were arrested and set to be tried in the Tallahatchie County Court in September of 1955 for the murder of Emmett Till. The friends of Roy Bryant and J.W. Milam as well as other white families collected money to buy every lawyer they could for the two. When it came to the trial the defenses main strategy was that the body could not be identified as Emmett Till. They claimed that Roy Bryant and J.W. Milam let him go alive. Any Black people that came forward with information for the prosecution mysteriously disappeared so most remained neutral to avoid having the same fate. The two men were acquitted and set free, Mamie Till sent to higher courts and even President Eisenhower, who all refused to investigate further. After the trail Roy Bryant and J.W. Milam sold their story about what they did to Look Magazine. They made Emmett carry a 75-pound cotton-gin fan to the bank of the Tallahatchie River and ordered him to take off his clothes. They beat him nearly to death, gouged out his eye, shot him in the head, and then threw his body in; with the cotton-gin fan tie around his neck with barbed wire, his body sank into the river. After the story was published and the government did nothing about it, Mamie Till and All African Americans in America, realized the magnitude of their predicament. They knew that their rights as humans were at risk. Thus, the murder of Emmett Till became renowned as the spark that began the Civil Rights Movement.